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“New sepsis diagnostic guidelines shift focus to organ dysfunction”‘ Assessment of clinical criteria for sepsis for the third International Consensus definitions for sepsis and septic shock”; Developing a new definition and assessing new clinical criteria for septic shock”; and “The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock”

by jmiller on February 24, 2016

“Definitions of sepsis and septic shock were last revised in 2001.  These updated definitions and clinical criteria should replace previous definitions, offer greater consistency for epidemiologic studies and clinical trials, and facilitate earlier recognition and more timely management of patients with sepsis or at risk for developing sepsis.”  (JAMA, Feb)  Click here to read full text.

“Proton pump inhibitor use and the risk of chronic kidney disease” and editorial “Adverse effects associate with proton pump inhibitors”

by jmiller on February 17, 2016

(Jama Intern Med, early online) The article concludes: “Proton pump inhibitor use is associated with a higher risk of incident CKD.”  See separate entry on PPIs  causing dementia.  Click here to read full text.

“Association of proton pump inhibitors with risk of dementia: A pharmacoepidemiological claims data analysis” and accompanying editorial “Do proton pump inhibitors increase the risk of dementia?”

by jmiller on February 17, 2016

Published online first (Jama Neurol), the article concludes: “The avoidance of PPI medication may prevent the development of dementia.  This finding is supported by recent pharmacoepidemiological analyses on primary data and is in line with mouse models in which the use of PPIs increased the levels of beta-amuloid in the brains of mice. Randomized, prospective clinical trials are needed to examine the connection in more detail.  Click here to read full text.

Drugs past their expiration date

by jmiller on January 27, 2016

According to The Medical Letter (Dec. 7), “When no suitable alternative is available, outdated drugs may be effective.  How much potency they retain varies with the drug, the lot, the preservatives (if any), and the storage conditions, especially heat and humidity; many solid dosage formulations stored under reasonable conditions in their original unopened containers retain up to 90% or greater of their potency for at least 5 years after the expiration date on the label, and sometimes much longer.  solutions and suspension are generally less stable.  There are no reports of toxicity from degradation products of currently available drugs.  Click here to read full text.

Comfort care for patients dying in the hospital

by jmiller on January 27, 2016

Great review article  (NEJM Dec 24, 2015) that reviews the need for comfort-care skills in hospital practice; setting goals at the end of life: the importance of communication; understanding comfort care; evidence-based management of symptoms in dying patients; pain; dyspnea; cough; xerostomia; nausea and vomiting; constipation; anorexia and cachexia and the role of hydration and nutrition; fever; anxiety and insomnia; delirium; palliative sedation to unconsciousness at the end of life.  The information presented “should provide clinicians in fields other than palliative care with a framework for delivering basic comfort care to hospitalized patients who are near death.”  Click here to read full text.

Understanding variation in 30-day surgical readmission in the era of accountable care: effect of the patient, surgeon, and surgical subspecialties

by jmiller on January 27, 2016

Article concludes:  “Readmission occurred in more than 1 in 10 patients, with considerable variation across surgical subspecialties.  Variation in readmission was overwhelmingly owing to patient-level factors while only a minority of the variation was attributable to factors at the surgical subspecialty and individual surgeon levels”.  (Jama Surgery, Nov 1015)  Click here to view full text.

Evidence for a standardized preadmission showering regimen to achieve maximal antiseptic skin surface concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate, 4%, in surgical patients

by jmiller on January 27, 2016

Article concludes: a standardized preadmission shower regimen that includes 118 ml. of aqueous chlorhexidine gluconate, 4%, per shower; a minimum of 2 sequential showers; and a 1-minute pause before rinsing results in maximal skin surface concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate that are sufficient to inhibit or kill gram-positive or gram negative surgical would pathogens.  This showering regimen corrects deficiencies present in current nonstandard preadmission shower protocols for patients undergoing elective surgery.  (Jama Surgery, Nov 2015).  Click here to read full text.

Consensus statement by the American Assn of Clinical Endocrinologists and Amer Coll Endocrinology on the comprehensive type 2 diabetes management algorithm

by jmiller on January 13, 2016

“Since originally drafted in 2013, the algorithm has been updated as new therapies, management approaches, and important clinical data have emerged.  The 2016 edition includes a new section on lifestyle therapy as well as discussion of all classes of obesity, antihyperglycemic, lipid-lowering, and antihypertensive medications approved by the FDA through December 2015.  (Endocrine Pract, Jan 2016)  Click here to read full text.

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